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Straw hats - how to clean

- Recipe no. 1:
Undyed straw hats can be cleaned with a dilute solution of tartaric acid. After this, it must be thoroughly rinsed with clean water. When drying, the hat must be stretched in such a way that it retains its original shape.

- Recipe no. 2:
The hats are cleaned with a sponge with the following solution:
Sodium hyposulphite 10 dl
Glycerin 5 dl
Alcohol 70 dl
Water 75 dl
The hats are now placed in a damp place for 24 hours and treated the next day with a citric acid solution, which consists of:
Citric Acid 2 dl
Alcohol 10 dl
Water 90 dl
The hats are ironed on with a hot iron. Beforehand, the hat is treated with a very dilute solution of gum arabicum.
- Recipe no. 3:
Hats that have become very dark are bleached with vapors of sulfur dioxide. Beforehand, they should be washed off as well as possible with a diluted potash solution.

The sulfur is brought to fire in a refractory stone pot with glowing charcoal and a high tin drum is placed over it. The hats to be bleached are hung at the top of the drum, which is not completely closed, but admits so much air that the sulfur continues to burn. After a few hours the straw is completely white. The hats are then treated with some gum solution and smoothed.

- Recipe no. 4:
a) Oxalic acid (poison) 2 dl
Water 150 dl
b) Sodium bisulphite 2 dl
Water 150 dl

The hat is first washed with soapy water (the band is cleaned with ammonia and water).

The oxalic acid and the sodium bisulphite are dissolved separately in the water. After washing, the straw is well saturated with the oxalic acid solution, allowed to dry slightly and then the sulfite solution is applied. The solutions are left to act for 2 to 20 minutes and then everything is washed away with plenty of clean water.

straw hat

Removing stain and dissolving substances

Antimony compounds dissolve in sulfuric ammonium solution.

Arsenic compounds are dissolved in ammonium sulfide, possibly after-treatment with ammonia.

Asphalt or Gilsonite stains are first softened by rubbing with warm vaseline or tetraline. They are then dissolved in a mixture of benzol, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and ethylene dichloride.

Balms dissolve in ether, toluene or chloroform.

Beer and champagne stains are treated with a solution of 2 dl salmiak, 2 dl glycerine and 2 dl alcohol in 7 dl water and rinsed with clean water.

Blood stains can be removed with sodium hydrosulfite or trisodium phosphate and hydrogen peroxide. You can also treat with water and ammonia.

Burnt sugar dissolve in a mixture of 10 dl glycerine, 10 dl water and 20 dl isopropyl alcohol.

Cadmium compounds dissolve in a solution of potassium cyanide (heavy poison). Wash with clear water.

Candle wax is dissolved with bacon and benzole.

Cobalt compounds also dissolve in potassium cyanide (heavy poison). Rinse with clean water.

Cod liver oil stains are removed with soap dissolved in amyl acetate.

Copper stains dissolve in a warm 25 pct potassium iodine solution.

Egg yolk stains are softened with glycerin and then dissolved in an alcoholic soap solution.

Vintage Ivory Soap

Fruit stains are dissolved by spraying boiling water against them with force, possibly with the addition of a little hydrogen peroxide.

Grass stains dissolve in alcohol, chloroform or 2-pc zinc chloride solution.

Grease stains dissolve in ether or soap and alcohol, otherwise pure gasoline and soap, trichloroaethylene or amyl acetate.

Henna stains are removed with 10-pc hydrogen peroxide 20 dl, salmice 4 dl and water 20 dl.

Ink Stains are first rubbed with hydrogen peroxide and then held in the hot steam of a kettle of boiling water until the stains turn yellow. If necessary, the operation is repeated. After this, the stains are rubbed with a solution of sorrel salt or oxalic acid (dangerous, poison).

Iodine is dissolved in a 10 pct iodine potassium solution, then treated with a 10 pct sodium thiosulphate solution and washed with clean water.

Iron salts are removed with an 8-pc sodium hydrosulfite solution.

Lead compounds are converted into iodides with tincture of iodine and dried. The iodide stains are then dissolved with a strong potassium iodide solution.

Manganese compounds are dissolved with a 10-pc ammonium sulphate solution. This is followed by diluted hydrochloric acid, finally clean water.

Mercuro chrome stains are first boiled for 3/4 hours with soapy water, then treated with benzaldehyde and finally with 25% hydrochloric acid and rinsed thoroughly with clean water.

Mercury compounds are dissolved in a 10-pct cyanide potassium solution (heavy poison) and rinsed with water.

Mildew is removed with Eau de Javelle, not from silk or wool.

Milk stains are first treated with ether or ethylene dichloride and then with a warm borax solution.

Mold stains are removed with a solution of 3 percent hydrogen peroxide and a solution of 4 dl salmice, 10 dl alcohol in 70 dl water.

Vintage Calverts Carbolic no5 Soap

Nickel salt stains dissolve in a 10 pct potassium cyanide solution (heavy poison). Rinse with clean water.

Nicotine stains on the skin are treated with a solution of:
Sodium sulfite 25 dl
Water 100 dl
Hydrochloric acid 2 dl
or with:
10 pc hydrogen peroxide 10 dl
Salmoniac 1 dl
Alcohol 5 dl

Nitrolac stains dissolve in a mixture of amyl acetate and acetone.

Oil and grease stains dissolve completely in a mixture of 1 dl glycol oleate, 2 dl hexaline and 1 dl carbon tetrachloride. This is followed by washing out with a grease solvent.

Paint and varnish stains are dissolved with carbon tetrachloride and benzol, amyl or butyl acetate. Not to be used with artificial silk; for this one takes 2 parts carbon tetrachloride, 2 parts alcohol and 1 part oleic acid.

Perfume is washed out with alcohol.

Picric acid stains dissolve in a 20 pct sodium sulphate solution. Then wash out with soap and water.

Protein stains are treated for several hours with a solution of 25 dl pepsin and 50 dl hydrochloric acid in 100 dl water at 45°C.

Scorch marks are treated with potassium permanganate solution and then with hydrogen peroxide.

Shoe polish dissolve in benzene.

Silver stains first with a solution of potassium iodine, then with crystals of sodium thiosulphate.

Sweat stains dissolve in soapy water and hydrogen peroxide.

Urine stains are removed with a 10-pc citric acid solution. Rinse with hot water.

Water stains are rubbed off with a 5-pc paraffin oil solution in toluene.

Removing stains from concrete and marble

In general,
almost all stains can be removed from concrete. Only very old stains are often extremely stubborn. The treatment must then sometimes be repeated every day and only a very large portion of patience can then lead to success.

Often it is not possible to determine what the stain actually consists of and then one simply has to try which chemicals act on the stain. In the case of concrete, all acids and substances that may possibly precipitate acid must be carefully avoided, as the concrete is also attacked by very weak acids.

Usually the coloring component has penetrated to a certain depth in the concrete. It is clear that such a stain cannot simply be washed away. To this end, it is necessary to allow the reacting material to act for a very long time. A very suitable method is to mix the active substance with a filler to form a plastic paste and then apply this paste in a thick layer to the stain. Usually, some kind of bandage, consisting of a few layers of thin cotton, is applied to keep the paste in place. You can also soak cotton with the solution and then place several layers on the stain.

Some stains can be removed or better made invisible by converting the colored fabric into an uncoloured compound, other stains, such as grease stains, must be dissolved. Care must therefore be taken here that the solvent cannot evaporate, for which purpose it is covered with impermeable fabric.

Iron stains must be reduced. Care must of course be taken that no air can get in so that the iron is oxidized again. It is then dissolved with citric acid sodium.

You must be very careful when using chemicals to remove stains. Sometimes this creates new stains, which are even more difficult to remove. This is the case, for example, with sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4), which is sometimes recommended for iron stains. In some cases, a black spot appears that is almost impossible to remove. The stain is probably iron sulfide.

In most cases it is extremely difficult to determine the nature of the stains. Iron stains are usually yellow to brown and are similar in color to iron rust. Oil stains can also turn brown over time and are then very difficult to identify. Stains of copper and bronze are often partly greenish, sometimes completely brown. It is also possible that the copper salt reacts chemically with the iron salts from the concrete. Stone banisters and the like often become thoroughly greasy and dirty due to daily use. Wood can turn brown if the temperature is too high. In such cases it is more advantageous to replace the old dirty and discolored material with new.

Iron stains
A solution of 1 dl of sodium citrate in 6 dl of water is made and the solution is mixed with an equal volume of glycerine. This solution is now made into a stiff paste with chalk white, which sticks to the stone in a thick layer. This paste is then spread in a thick layer on the stain, eg with a putty knife, and the mass is left to work for several days. If it takes too long, the sodium citrate can be replaced by the faster-acting ammonium citrate, which makes polished surfaces slightly matt.

Dark iron stains are first treated with sodium citrate. The stain is rubbed well with the above solution for 10 to 15 minutes. After this, when the surface is horizontal, a thin layer of fine sodium hydrosulphite crystals is sprinkled on the stain, moistened with a little water and then a thick paste of chalk white in water is applied. When the surface is vertical, take the chalk white paste on a trowel, sprinkle the sodium hydrosulphite powder on it, moisten with water and then press the paste onto the iron stain. After about an hour, the mass should be removed. If the stain has not yet disappeared, the operation must be repeated. When the stain has disappeared, the area is treated with citrate solution.

Copper stains
Green copper stains are treated with a paste consisting of 1 dl salmiak and 4 dl talcum mixed with ammonia. The stain is smeared with this paste and allowed to dry. Very old stains must be treated several times, possibly the salmiak can be replaced by aluminum chloride. If the stain is very stubborn, the rest can be dissolved with the very dangerous potassium cyanide solution (heavy poison). A thick rag is soaked with a 5% solution of KCN in water and the rag is kept wet for some time.

Ink stains
Ink stains need to be treated differently depending on the type of ink spilled. The usual types of writing ink consist of a solution of gallic and tannic acid iron, aniline blue and something acidic. A strong, hot solution of sodium perborate is then prepared and the solution is stirred with chalk to a thick paste. This paste is smeared on the ink stain in a layer of about ½ cm thick and replaced with a new layer after drying. If the ink stain has already turned brown, it should be treated as an iron stain.

Today, many inks, especially the non-blue ones, consist of a simple solution of aniline dye in water. Usually stains from these types of ink can also be removed with sodium perborate as described above. If this does not work, then one takes ammonia or finally bleach (eau de Javelle). Ink made with Berlin blue can be removed with fairly strong ammonia. Stains from so-called indelible ink can sometimes be removed with an alternating treatment with chlorinated lime slurry and ammonia.

Tobacco stains
Tobacco stains in marble and terrazzo can usually be removed with a paste of the common abrasives used in the kitchen and for cleaning marble. These consist of pumice or quartz powder with soda, trisodium phosphate and some soap. You can also use a strong solution of soap and soda, e.g. about 20 g of soap and 20 g of soda in ½ l of water. You can soak a rag with this solution and place it on the stain or you can make a paste of the soap-soda solution with chalk white. The porridge is left to act until it has become completely dry and then replaced with a new quantity. The chalk white can be successfully replaced by talcum, as the dried mass can then be removed more easily.

A very effective solution, which can also be used for many other stains, is a mixture of trisodium phosphate and bleach. The solution is made by dissolving 1 kg of trisodium phosphate in 4 l of water and mixing with a thin chlorinated lime slurry containing 350 g of chlorinated lime. The formed insoluble calcium phosphate is allowed to settle slowly and the above solution is stirred with talcum to a paste. The solution must not come into contact with metal, so it must be made in enameled or stone pots.

Urine stains
Urine stains can also be removed with the solution of trisodium phosphate and bleach. In stubborn cases, place a cloth on the stain and keep it moist with the solution for several days.

In almost all cases, after removing the stains, a matte spot will remain. By grinding and polishing, the shine can be made just as strong as that of the environment. Fine carborundum or emery is used as abrasive. They are then polished with Viennese lime.

Cleaning marble and concrete, copper, bronze, grease stains, smoke fingers & more ...

Cleaning marble
The marble, for example a floor, is first thoroughly washed with a soda solution, so that no more grease is present. After this, the marble is well smeared with a ½ pct solution of potassium permanganate. Before this solution has completely dried, the marble is thoroughly wetted with ammonia and immediately afterwards with a solution of sodium hydrosulphite. The brown and violet color of the permanganate then disappears immediately. If the marble is not yet white enough, you can repeat the process without danger.

Copper stains in limestone
Where limestone comes into contact with copper or bronze, for example on nameplates, fences and lamp bases, ugly green stains often appear. Without affecting the metal in the slightest, these stains can be removed with a potassium cyanide solution. However, this solution is extremely toxic and must be handled with great care.

Cleaning colored concrete.
A good liquid soap is spread on the concrete. This is left overnight, washed off well the next day and rinsed with clean water. After drying, the concrete is rubbed with ordinary floor wax. In the beginning, washing is repeated every month, eventually only twice a year. By scrubbing with wax, the color of the concrete becomes much more intensive and beautiful.
Cleaning copper
Oxalic acid (poison) 1 dl
Kiesagur 6 dl
Gum arabic ½ dl
Cotton Kernel Oil 1 dl

The gum is mixed with double the amount of water and left to stand for a few days until the gum has dissolved. In addition, the oxalic acid is dissolved in as little water as possible. Now the two solutions are mixed, add the kieselguhr, finally the oil and stir until everything is evenly mixed. Add as much water as necessary.

Cleaning bronze
A solution of 5 dl glacial acetic acid and 95 dl water, or regular strong vinegar is saturated with common table salt. By polishing with this solution, bronze can be cleaned very well. By painting the metal immediately afterwards with a zapon lacquer, the shine is preserved.

Remove grease stains
A warm saturated solution of sodium aluminate is diluted with the same volume of hot water. The fat dissolves easily in this; rinse with warm clean water. Small grease stains can be removed from fabric by placing a piece of thick tissue paper under the grease stain and then rubbing the grease off with a cloth moistened with the solution.
Cleaner for wallpaper
Wheat starch 35 dl
Saturated table salt sol. 65 dl

The two substances are mixed and then heated on a water bath until a tough gummy mass has formed. If one also wants to remove greasy dirt, a little petroleum is added towards the end of the preparation.

With the mass you can clean smooth walls, because the mass removes the dirt like a kind of eraser.

Solvent for grease, oil, paint and nitro varnish
Alcohol, denatured 10 dl
Ethyl Acetate 20 dl
Butyl Acetate 20 dl
Toluene or Benzole 20 dl
Carbon tetrachloride 30 dl
Solvent for tar and paint
Xylol 140 dl
Trichloroethylene 47 dl
Ethylene Dichloride 61 dl
Oleic acid 40 dl
Sulphonated Castor Oil 24 dl
Isopropyl alcohol 33 dl
Triaethanolamine 16 dl
Bottle detergent
Sodium metasilicate 10 dl
Calcinated Soda 20 dl
Trisodium phosphate 25 dl
Brush cleaning agent
First dissolve 1 l of oleic acid in 2 l of petroleum. In addition, ¼ l of strong ammonia is mixed with ¼ l of spirit and then the ammonia solution is slowly added to the oleic acid solution. The hardened brushes are left overnight in this mixture and then washed with warm water.
Removing rust and ink stains from clothes
Two solutions are made:
Ammonium Sulfide Solution 5 dl
Water 95 dl
Oxalic acid 5 dl
Water 95 dl

The part of the fabric in which the stains are located is dipped alternately in the first and in the second solution, each time being washed out with clean water.

Removing smoke stains on the fingers
The fingers are first rubbed with a 2-pc solution of potassium permanganate, which turns them completely brown. After this, the dark brown spots are rubbed with sodium bisulphite, which is optionally mixed with violet root powder. The powder is slightly moistened and rubbed until the brown spots have completely disappeared. The nicotine stains are usually gone after one treatment. After this, one washes the hands carefully with warm water and soap.

Stain water

15 pcs liquid soap 40 dl
Petrol 10 dl
Turkish red oil 15 dl
Hexaline 10 dl
Methyl Glycol 10 dl
Spiritus 15 dl

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