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First aid

Call the doctor immediately

The most effective first aid is to ensure that medical assistance is called in as quickly as possible. Even in the case of apparently very minor injuries, whether due to purely mechanical or chemical effects, have the injury examined by a physician after first aid has been given.

Dangerously poisonous substances are indicated in the recipe. However, one should never forget that all chemicals are relatively dangerous. After working with chemicals, you must therefore wash your hands in any case, and during work, you should not touch your eyes with your hands. When working with flammable liquids, there must be absolutely no fire in the room.


- Acids:
First rinse with as much cold water as possible, then rinse with a solution of soda or sodium bicarbonate. Also wash off with a solution of 700 g of glycerin, 100 g of water and 200 g of 25 percent ammonia. Then cover with an alkaline ointment that may consist of: 100 g of Vaseline, 15 g of paraffin oil and 20 g of magnesium oxide. With strong sulfuric acid, the largest amount of acid must first be removed by dry wiping, then rinsed with a strong jet of water.
- Lye:
First rinse with plenty of cold water, then wash with diluted acetic acid of 2 to 3% or with a mixture of 700 g glycerine, 300 g water and 100 g 80% acetic acid. After this, boron ointment is covered, the ointment is renewed from time to time.
- Bromine
Wash off with a mixture of 1 part by volume of 25 percent ammonia, 1 part by volume of turpentine oil and 10 parts by volume of alcohol.
- Phosphorus:
Burns caused by phosphorus, after removing the burning phosphorus or extinguishing it with sand, should be bathed with a warm solution of 5% sodium bicarbonate. After that burn ointment.
- Mustard oil or other corrosive poison gases:
Wash off immediately with a solution of chlorinated lime or chloramine. Then a wrap with a solution of potassium pernanganate of 1:4000, further boron ointment or Vaseline.


- Acids:
Wash out with a 5 pct solution of sodium bicarbonate in water.
- Lye:
Wash out using an eye bath with 3 pct boron water or loosen by hand with 1 pct acetic acid.
- Oil:
Wash out with 5% alcohol.
- Filthy:
Do not rub, apply cold wrap. Immediately consult the physician.
- Tear gas:
Rinse with boric water (3% boric acid in distilled water), followed by an alkaline eye ointment.

Breath poison:

Remove immediately to fresh air. If breathing stops, apply artificial respiration for several hours.
- Carbon monoxide or light gas:
Administer oxygen with 5% carbon dioxide. The same in all cases where the patient develops a blue complexion.
- Chlorine, phosgene:
Complete rest for the first 24 hours, administer oxygen if the face turns blue. Inhale a solution of baking soda and sodium chloride (1:500 each), give plenty to drink.
- Nitrous vapours:
Absolute rest, keep warm, possibly oxygen, no artificial respiration.
- Arsines:
These poison gases, which irritate the mucous membranes extremely strongly, are decomposed by sodium bicarbonate, so gargle with a 3 to 5 percent solution of sodium bicarbonate. Further inhalation of small amounts of chlorine, smelling a bottle of chlorinated lime, or inhalation of alcohol with chloroform or ammonia with ether.
- Mercury:
Sprinkle the floor and drawers, which contain mercury, with activated charcoal that has previously been allowed to absorb 5% iodine.

Stomach poison:

- Corrosive Poisons:
Acid and lye, vomiting should not be induced at all. With acids, a thin paste of burnt magnesia and water is given, with lye diluted vinegar or lemon juice.
- Non-corrosive poisons:
Induce vomiting first by sticking the finger in the neck or by tickling the throat deeply with a feather, or by giving an emetic, e.g. two egg spoons of mustard in a glass of lukewarm water or with an interval of at least 5 minutes two tablespoons of a 1 -pct copper sulfate solution. After this, a large amount of Norit is given, several times a tablespoon full of water, with intervals of 5 minutes. In case of poisoning with prussic acid or potassium cyanide, a 10-pc solution of sodium thiosulphate is also given.
- Opium and other narcotic poisons:
In particular, the patient should not be put to sleep, kept awake by walking between two other people. Drink strong tea or coffee without milk, take a hot bath.
- Silver nitrate:
Table salt and water.
- Lead Acetate:
Protein, emetic, potassium or magnesium sulphate and if possible pump the stomach empty.
- Aresenicum or rat powder:
Flour and water, lime water, milk, raw eggs and sweet oil, magnesium oxide with water.
- Carbolic acid:
Induce vomiting with zinc sulphate, then ice with lime water or olive oil with magnesia, then calcium saccharate. Finally, a portion of brandy or cognac.
- Iodine:
First emetic, then a lot of flour with water or porridge, if possible pump the stomach empty.
- Sublimate:
Emetic, then ferrum reductum or milk and chalk, egg white or zinc sulphate.
- Methyl alcohol:
Emetic or better wash out the stomach with a very dilute solution of sodium citrate. Then milk and egg with 15 g of magnesium sulfate.

Electricity accidents

If possible, the power must be switched off immediately, in other cases the power cable should be pushed aside with a dry stick. The victim can be pulled away when the helper has gutta-percha gloves on. One can also wrap the hand with a dry coat or a thick woolen cloth. One stands on a dry mat and then pulls the victim away. Immediately apply artificial respiration.


One should never wash out a wound and never touch it with the fingers. Glass wounds with dirty glasses are also obtained, first let them bleed for a moment and then bandage them. If an artery is broken during the injury and the blood spurts out of the wound, then tie off the artery above the wound with a rolled-up cloth.

Larger wounds are then bandaged with an emergency bandage, smaller ones are treated with tincture of iodine (5 g of iodine, 1.5 g of potassium iodide and 93.5 g of 70% alcohol) and then bandaged with sterile gauze. One should never put cotton wool directly on a wound, first comes a piece of gauze, folded four times, then cotton wool and gauze on top. Small bandages are then fixed with adhesive plaster.

Poisonous wounds

With a bite from snakes or mad dogs, the member above the wound must be tied off, then suck or burn the wound to remove the poison, with snake bites with ammonia.

In case of insect stings, the stinger is carefully removed, the wound is sucked out and then rubbed with ammonia.

Wasp stings are sprinkled with vinegar or lemon juice. The pain is reduced by brushing with a menthol stick. Inflammation of the wound is prevented by wrapping with aluminum acetate (one tablespoon of the strong solution in a glass of water).

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