Free recipes: cutting-emulsion, wax emulsions, petroleum emulsion and much more...

When we shake linseed oil and lime water in a bottle, a yellow milky opaque liquid is formed; this liquid is an emulsion. We can often observe this phenomenon when oil is shaken with certain solutions. If we shake oil with plain water, no emulsion forms. A third substance is required to form an emulsion; We call this substance an emulsifier. In many cases, soap can serve as an emulsifier, as can certain organic substances with a very complicated composition. For example, we can simply shake or tap oil with an adhesive solution to form an emulsion. Egg yolk also contains such substances; As is practically done in mayonnaise, we can beat large amounts of oil with an egg yolk to form an emulsion.

An emulsion is a mixture of oil and an aqueous solution, where the oil is so finely distributed in the water that the small oil droplets remain floating. Conversely, it is also possible to divide water in oil so finely that a stable emulsion is formed; this inverted emulsion is used in certain cosmetic preparations. The stability of an emulsion often depends on small impurities and although scientific research has already shed a lot of light on this, in practice people are still faced with inexplicable riddles from time to time. In recent years, however, emulsifiers, i.e. substances that enable the formation of an emulsion, have been brought onto the market, which enable such stable and insensitive emulsions that their manufacture has become much simpler. However, practical experience is generally still necessary. The novice can obtain this relatively cheaply by experimenting with small quantities.

An emulsion should not be heated to temperatures above its boiling point, as this will cause the water to boil and the emulsion to become unstable. Cooling below freezing also causes the disintegration of an emulsion as a result of the water freezing out. Therefore, if one wants to make an emulsion of substances that have a melting point higher than 100°C, the substance must first be combined with a solvent or another substance, which will bring the melting point below 100°C. Only then can the substance be combined with the water and the emulsifier.

Emulsions are used in an enormous number of industries and the number of applications in the home is also countless, although we are often not aware of it. When you add butter to the vegetable, an emulsion is created; Milk is an emulsion, as is mayonnaise and many other foods. Most beauty preparations are emulsions, as are cleaning preparations, insecticides, lubricants, etc.

Especially with emulsions, the correct proportions are highly dependent on the type of materials used. The indicated recipes were developed with substances made in certain factories. Small deviations are often necessary to obtain an absolutely useful result. These deviations must be determined by small tests.

Ammonium linoleate as emulsifier

This substance forms a yellow paste that smells clearly of ammonia and is made by neutralizing the fatty acids from linseed oil with ammonia. In all recipes this product can usually be replaced by linseed oil fatty acid, which is combined with the required amount of ammonia during preparation. The ammonium linoleate is generally used for emulsifying plant oils, fish oils, waxes, fats, resins and hydrocarbons. If the substance to be emulsified has a melting point higher than 100°C, the substance is first dissolved in white spirit, benzene, ethylene chloride or turpentine oil. Alcohol should be avoided as alcohol tends to make emulsions unstable. Acids, esters and salts should also be avoided.

When preparing an emulsion of ammonium linoleate, the linoleate must first be soaked in water overnight. The next day the linoleate is kneaded with water until it has formed a thin homogeneous solution. The indicated amount of fat or oil is then added to this solution while stirring vigorously and stirred until the emulsion is completely homogeneous. Waxes and fats with a low melting point are first melted and then added as oil to the emulsifier, which is heated beforehand. Work is safest when both substances are heated to 95°C. When making wax emulsions it is necessary to use a high-speed electric stirrer.

Emulsions containing hydrocarbons have a much lower flash point than the starting material and clean very well.

Recipes with ammonium linoleate as an emulsifier

Petroleum 90 dl 90 dl 8 dl
Benzole 90 dl 100 dl 7 dl
Pine oil 90 dl 90 dl 10 dl
Carnauba wax 90 dl 620 dl 12 dl
Beeswax 90 dl 500 dl 12 dl
Ozokerier 90 dl 400 dl 14 dl
Turpentine oil 90 dl 100 dl 8 dl
Nitrobenzole 90 dl 100 dl 8 dl
Orthodichlorobenzole 90 dl 100 dl 8 dl
Methyl salicylate 90 dl 100 dl 8 dl

In many cases, less emulsifier can be used, especially if approximately 1% ammonia is added to the mixing water beforehand. With more water the emulsion becomes thinner.

Carnauba wax
Carnauba wax, also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of the leaves of the carnauba palm, a plant native to and grown only in the northeastern Brazilian states of Ceará, Piauí, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Maranhão and Bahia. It is known as the "Queen of Waxes". In its pure state, it is usually available in the form of hard yellow-brown flakes. It is obtained by collecting and drying the leaves, beating them to loosen the wax, then refining and bleaching it. As a food additive, its E number is E903. Wikipedia

Triethanolamine stearate as emulsifier

This preparation is commercially available as a light brown colored waxy mass and can be made by neutralizing stearic acid in a molten state with triaethanolamine. To make an emulsion, the stearate is first melted together with the fat or oil. The molten mixture is then slowly added to the required amount of warm water.
Recipes with triethanolamine stearate as an emulsifier

Lubricating oil 75 dl 185 dl 15 dl
Pine oil 75 dl 85 dl 14 dl
Turpentine oil 75 dl 85 dl 14 dl
Paraffin 85 dl 200 dl 10 dl
Eucalyptus oil 75 dl 85 dl 14 dl
Copaiva balm 75 dl 85 dl 14 dl
Paint gasoline 75 dl 85 dl 14 dl

Diglycol stearate as an emulsifier

This substance is a slightly colored waxy mass, is virtually odorless and does not react alkaline. Part of this substance with 10 to 30 dl of boiling water gives a white milky emulsion, which is very stable. This emulsion is an excellent carrier for substances such as titanium white, carbon black, graphite, quartz powder and other abrasives. In addition, the emulsion can absorb and emulsify other insoluble oils. For example, 10 dl of diglycol stearate can stably emulsify 40 to 50 dl of lubricating oil, paraffin and pine oil with 40 to 500 dl of water.

The oil or wax is melted together with the glycol stearate, the water is heated almost to boiling and gradually reduced to stir well with the wax melt mixed.

Resin emulsion

Resin (colophonium) 70 dl
Water 210 dl
Wood glue 15 dl
The glue is dissolved in water in the normal way, the resin is melted and the molten resin mass is added to the glue solution with vigorous stirring. Stirring should be continued until the solution is completely uniform. The usual skin or bone glue can be replaced by pure gelatin.

Resin-turpentine emulsion

Resin 11 dl
Turpentine oil 2½ dl
Ammonium linoleate 2 dl
Water 50 dl
Ammonia 15 dl
After soaking, the ammonium linoleate is dissolved in water and heated. The resin is dissolved in the turpentine oil and, after adding the ammonia to the linoleate solution, the resin solution is poured into the aqueous solution with vigorous stirring. The emulsion must be stirred until completely cold.

Cutting fluid

Cutting fluid is usually made from a lubricating oil with a medium viscosity. The amount of emulsifier required to obtain an oil that very easily gives a stable emulsion with water varies. In general, calculated on the oil, approximately 3½ up to 4% triethanolamine and 8 to 11% oleic acid. The better the oil is refined, the more difficult it is to obtain a long-lasting emulsion.

The amount of emulsifier required for a particular type of oil can be determined as follows:

For example, 88 g of the lubricating oil is mixed with 8 g of oleic acid and stirred until a transparent solution is obtained.
4 g of triethanolamine are then added to this and stirred well. When held up to the light, this mixture is generally not clear and shows small floating droplets.
Oleic acid is now added very slowly to the mixture until the oil becomes completely clear.
The drilling oil then, when poured into water, produces an emulsion. However, a small excess of oleic acid makes the emulsion considerably more stable. From the small sample you can easily calculate how much to take in large quantities.

Olive oil emulsion

Olive oil 88 dl
Oleic acid 10 dl
Triethanolamine 2 dl
Water 80 dl
The mixer, which has a high-speed stirrer, is filled at normal temperature with the triethanolamine, oleic acid and 30 dl of olive oil. After this, the stirrer is started and stirring is carried out until the mixture is completely uniform. After this, 33 dl of water is added, creating a thick emulsion. While stirring continuously, first add the rest of the olive oil to this emulsion in small portions and finally the rest of the water in the same way. Each new amount of oil or water is only added when the previous portion is completely evenly combined with the emulsion.

Pine oil emulsion

Pine oil 91 dl
Oleic acid 6 dl
Triethanolamine 3 dl
Water 100 dl
The oleic acid is first mixed with the triaethanolamine and 30 dl of pine oil and stirred until the mixture is completely clear. After this, about 40 dl of water is added while stirring well, again in small portions, just as with olive oil. After this, first add the rest of the oil and finally the remaining water.

Linseed oil emulsion

Linseed oil 88 dl
Oleic acid 10 dl
Triethanolamine 2 dl
Water 80 dl
The preparation is as with olive oil emulsion.

Petroleum emulsion

Pure petroleum 80 dl
Oleic acid 8 dl
Triethanolamine 3 dl
Water 100 dl
The oleic acid is first dissolved in the petroleum. In another kettle, the triethanolamine is dissolved in the water and then the oil solution is added to the amine solution while stirring vigorously. After the emulsion is ready, let the stirrer run for a few minutes from time to time.

Paraffin emulsion

Paraffin 88 dl
Stearic acid 9 dl
Triethanolamine 3 dl
Water 300 dl
Water, triethanolamine and stearic acid are mixed and heated to boiling. The paraffin is stirred carefully and boiled until a good soap solution is obtained with as little foam as possible.

The paraffin is melted in another kettle and heated to 90°.

The hot wax is now poured into the hot soap solution while stirring thoroughly. The emulsion is stirred slowly during cooling.

Carnauba wax emulsion

Carnauba wax 87 dl
Stearic acid 9 dl
Triethanolamine 4 dl
Water 400 dl
The indicated amounts of stearic acid, water and triaethanolamine are heated together in a kettle to boiling. The carnauba wax is stirred and boiled until a uniform soap solution is obtained.

In addition, the carnauba wax is melted in a steam-jacketed kettle or on a water bath and heated to 90°C. heated.

The melted carnauba wax is now poured into the soap solution while stirring well. Finally, stir slowly until the emulsion is cold.

Carnauba wax-petroleum emulsion

Carnauba wax 160 dl
Petroleum distillate 160 dl
Ammonium linoleate 24 dl
Water 2000 dl
The ammonium linoleate is first soaked in the water overnight and then dissolved by heating. In addition, the wax is melted and heated to 100°C. heated.

The petroleum distillate is then added to the molten wax mass.

The wax mass is now poured into the hot, possibly boiling, linoleate solution while stirring well. The emulsion is then stirred until completely cooled.

Carnauba wax spindle oil emulsion

Spindel oil 17 dl
Carnauba wax 18 dl
Ammonium linoleate 2,4 dl
Water 102 dl
The preparation is carried out in the same way as for Carnauba wax-petroleum emulsion.

Asphalt emulsion [1]

Asphalt 500 dl
Water 500 dl
Bentonite 30 dl
Quebracho 30 dl
Sodium hydroxide 10 dl
The asphalt is melted, up to 95℃ heated and, stirring well, slowly poured into the solution of the other ingredients, which has been heated to almost boiling.

Asphalt emulsion [2]

Asphalt 2800 dl
Water 2800 dl
Resin soap 118 dl
Pine oil 35 dl
The soap is dissolved in the water and the asphalt is mixed at 95℃ mixed with the pine oil. While stirring well, the asphalt solution is now poured into the soap solution.

Lanolin emulsion

Diglycololeate 10 dl
Lanolin 30 dl
These are mixed and dissolved by heating. This involves pouring 60 cm³ of a hot ½-pcts caustic soda solution.

Paradichlorobenzole emulsion

Paradichlorobenzole 12 dl
Glycol stearate 3 dl
Water 150 dl
The glycol stearate is melted in hot water (90°C) and stirred well with a high-speed stirrer.

The paradichlorobenzol is melted on a water bath and slowly added to the stearate solution with good stirring. The emulsion must be stirred until completely cooled.

Talc emulsion

Resin-potassium soap 10 dl
Carbolic acid 20 dl
For hard water it is recommended to add a few percent of trisodium phosphate.

Carbolic acid emulsion

Beef tallow 100 dl
Triethanol stearate 9 dl
Water 90 dl
The two substances are heated and stirred together. Some water can be added while stirring.

Impregnating emulsion

Water 60 dl
Turkish red oil 10 dl
Casein 3 dl
Ammonia 1 dl
Chlornaphthalin (Seekay wax) 80 dl
Trichloroethylene 100 dl
The cassein is first soaked in water and then dissolved after adding the ammonia; Turkish red oil is added to this solution. In addition, the Seekay wax is dissolved in the trichlorethylene and this solution is now poured into the first solution while stirring well. A very stable emulsion is obtained, which can also be further diluted with water before use. The emulsion can be used to impregnate porous material, making it very water-repellent. Since these types of artificial waxes are non-flammable, they also make impregnated fabric and wood less flammable, while regular waxes increase the flammability.

Hiking boots are impregnated waterproof with an emulsion.

Benzole emulsion

Potassium soap 9,6 dl
spirits 3,6 dl
Benzole 82,8 dl
Hexaline 4,0 dl
This solution is clear and can be diluted with 150 dl of water to form a white emulsion.

Trichloroethylene emulsion

Potassium soap 9,6 dl
Spirits 3,6 dl
Trichloroethylene 86,8 dl
The soap is first dissolved in the spirit and then the tri is added. The solution can be diluted with 150 dl of water to a snow-white thick emulsion.

An emulsion of carbon tetrachloride can be made using the same recipe.

Soap is an excellent emulsifier for both chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Gasoline emulsion [1]

Ammonium Linoleate 6,7 dl
Spirits 6,6 dl
Gasoline 86,7 dl
The ammonium linoleate is first soaked in the spirit for a few hours, after which it is dissolved by careful heating and stirring and the gasoline is added. This solution can be diluted with 100 dl of water to form a stable emulsion.

Gasoline emulsion [2]

Lanette wax SX 1,70 dl
Stearic acid 3,30 dl
Gasoline 50,00 dl
Alcoholic soap solution 2,50 dl
Turkish red oil 1,25 dl
Potassium lye 30° Bé 1,25 dl
Water 40 dl
The lanette wax is melted together with the stearic acid on a water bath, the temperature may not be higher than 85-90° C. The gasoline is then added, then the oil and finally the water in which the lye has been dissolved.

The Solvent emulsions containing soap, ammonium linoleate or triethanolamine as emulsifier are generally used in the textile industry for cleaning greasy fabrics. Those containing sulfonates are used as a wetting agent, against the flocculation of lime soap and when washing cotton with lye. The emulsions with lanette wax are used as a cleaning paste.

Soap spirits

Soft soap 70 dl
Spirits 30 dl

Lead spinning grease

Ammonium Linoleate 5 dl
Water 45 dl
Spindle oil 50 dl
The ammonium linoleate is first mixed with a small amount of water, allowed to stand for a few hours and then gradually added with good stirring the rest of the water until a yellow milky solution is obtained. The oil is then added. An extremely durable thick emulsion is obtained.

Wool spinning oil

Triethanolamine 1
Oleic acid 2, 5 dl
Water 50
Spindle oil 46, 5 dl
The triethanolamine is dissolved in the water, then the oleic acid and then the oil are added while stirring.

Milling grease

Soap spirits 7 dl
Spindle oil 48 dl
Oleic acid 1 dl
Water 44 dl
The soap spirit is mixed with the oil and the oleic acid is carefully added. Finally, it is diluted with water.
Cutting fluid

Decalin emulsion

Turkisch red oil 36 dl
Decalin 60 dl
Potassium lye 30° Bé 4 dl
This solution can be diluted with approximately five times the amount of water to form a white emulsion.

Paint stripper

Castor oil fatty acid 8 dl
Methylhexaline 15 dl
Potassium lye 50° Bé 9 dl
Tetralin 79 dl
Before use, the preparation is mixed with water in the desired concentration, creating an emulsion.

The same preparation can also be used for cleaning very greasy tissue and printing letters.

Tetralin, soluble in water

Oleic acid 4, 2 dl
Potassium lye 50° Bé 1, 6 dl
Water 4, 2 dl
Tetralin 100
Methylhexaline 23
Diluted with water, the preparation is very useful for degreasing metals.

By dissolving 5 to 20% paraffin in the preparation, the emulsion thickens so much that it can be used for stripping perpendicular walls.

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