For those who like to work with electronics or just want to build an electronic circuit, it is useful to have at hand the color codes or numerical codes that are printed on some components. For example, how do you recognize the value stated on a resistor or capacitor? The color code tables and color calculator on this page make this a lot easier! The resistance value is expressed in ohms or Ω. 1000Ω is the same as 1KΩ (1Kilo ohm) or 1K and 1000KΩ is the same as 1MΩ (1 Mega ohm) or 1M.

Resistors values in color code

Calculate resistance values from color codes

Calculate the resistance values from the color codes


Illustration Copyright 1996 Danny Goodman (AE9F). All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 1996-2010 Danny Goodman
Design by Free Web Design Community


A capacitor's capacitance can be stamped on it indicating the value directly or using the EAI code, which indicates all values in picoFarad. For example, the code 2R2 indicates 2.2 (picoFarad). Or the code 682 where the third digit represents the number or zeros that belong after the first two digits; So 6800 pF in this example.
picoFarad nanoFarad microFarad EAI-code
pF nF uF or mfd stamp
1 0,001 0,000001 010
1,5 0,0015 0,0000015 1R5
2,2 0,0022 0,0000022 2R2
3,3 0,0033 0,0000033 3R3
3,9 0,0039 0,0000039 3R9
4,7 0,0047 0,0000047 4R7
5,6 0,0056 0,0000056 5R6
6,8 0,0068 0,0000068 6R8
8,2 0,0082 0,0000082 8R2
10 0,01 0,00001 100
15 0,015 0,000015 150
22 0,022 0,000022 220
33 0,033 0,000033 330
47 0,047 0,000047 470
56 0,056 0,000056 560
68 0,068 0,000068 680
82 0,082 0,000082 820
100 0,1 0,0001 101
120 0,12 0,00012 121
130 0,13 0,00013 131
150 0,15 0,00015 151
180 0,18 0,00018 181
220 0,22 0,00022 221
330 0,33 0,00033 331
470 0,47 0,00047 471
560 0,56 0,00056 561
680 0,68 0,00068 681
750 0,75 0,00075 751
820 0,82 0,00082 821
1000 1 or 1n 0,001 102
1500 1,5 or 1n5 0,0015 152
2000 2 or 2n5 0,002 202
2200 2,2 or 2n2 0,0022 222
3300 3,3 or 3n3 0,0033 332
4700 4,7 or 4n7 0,0047 472
5000 5 or 5n 0,005 502
5600 5,6 or 5n6 0,0056 562
6800 6,8 or 6n8 0,0068 682
10000 10 or 10n 0,01 103
15000 15 or 15n 0,015 153
22000 22 or 22n 0,022 223
33000 33 or 33n 0,033 333
47000 47 or 47n 0,047 473
68000 68 or 68n 0,068 683
100000 100 or 100n 0,1 104
150000 150 or 150n 0,15 154
200000 200 or 200n 0,20 204
220000 220 or 220n 0,22 224
330000 330 or 330n 0,33 334
470000 470 or 470n 0,47 474
680000 680 or 680n 0,68 684
1000000 1000 1,0 105
1500000 1500 1,5 155
2000000 2000 2,0 205
2200000 2200 2,2 225
10000000 10000 10 106

Capacitors values in color code

The capacity or a capacitor can also be indicated with a color code that may differ per capacitor type but is basically the same.

You can see some options below.



About polarity and more...
The ordinary capacitors, which are the subject of the tables on this page, do not have a plus or minus connection.

The situation is different with electrolytic capacitors. They have a plus and a minus connection. If they are connected the wrong way around, they will certainly become defective and with a bit of bad luck they will explode. The latter also happens if they are connected correctly but the maximum voltage they can tolerate is exceeded. The maximum voltage, as well as the capacitance, is usually stated in clear text on the electrolytic capacitor.

Electrolytic capacitors are available in large capacities. The latest technologies make it possible to squeeze a lot of capacity into a small housing. These so-called SuperCaps or GoldCaps are very interesting as a voltage buffer in sensitive electronic circuits.

Electrolytic capacitors (Radial lead type) - Panasonic Industry

LEDs & LEDs Calculator for series resistor

About LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)
A diode is a component that can pass current in only one direction. It does this as soon as a certain voltage difference has been reached (threshold voltage). With a normal diode, this threshold voltage is between 0.15 and 0.6 V, depending on the type. With LEDs, the threshold or forward voltage is much higher.

The LED (Light Emitting Diode) is nothing more than a diode that emits light when a current flows through it. This current only starts to flow when the forward voltage of the LED has been reached, approximately 3.5 volts. The current should be limited to usually about 20 mA to avoid burnout. A series resistor is usually used for this. Please note that heat is developed in this resistance.

LEDs are available in various colors, from cold to warm white, in yellow, red, green and blue. There is also an RGB version. With this type of LED you can create all the colors of the rainbow.

And then there are the so-called power LEDs. With their high power, they are used in flashlights and spotlights.


LED with series resistor

 LED with series resistor
Note that heat is developed
in the resistor. Therefore,
choose a sufficiently heavy type.
 Supply voltage
 Voltage across the LED
 Current through the LED


 Calculated resistance
 usable value 10%
 Calculated power
 Safe power


LEDs in series with series resistor

Multiple LEDs in series with series resistor
Multiple LEDs in series can be very beneficial for the power lost in the resistor.
 Supply voltage
 Voltage across the LED
 Current through the LED

 Quantity of LEDs


 Calculated resistance
 usable value 10%
 Calculated power
 Safe power


LEDs in parallel with series resistor

Multiple LEDs in parallel with series resistor
When connected in parallel, a larger current flows through the resistor, with associated heat development.
So not really recommended.
 Supply voltage
 Voltage across the LED
 Current through the LED

 Quantity of LEDs


 Calculated resistance
 usable value 10%
 Calculated power
 Safe power


LM317 as constant current source
and LED driver

The LM317 is very suitable as a fixed power source. Although it can be done with a fixed voltage and a series resistor, a current source is the best way to control a LED.

Applications include power LEDs in flashlights, but also something as simple as bicycle lighting.

Provided your supply voltage is high enough, you can also connect several LEDs in series. This will not increase power consumption.


LM317 as constant voltage source
and LED driver

The LM317 is also very suitable for converting a varying input voltage into a stable fixed output voltage. Applied in this way, you can also control LEDs. Model railroaders in particular will find a fixed voltage source interesting. For example, you can use it to create realistic model train lighting.

Using the formula below you can easily calculate the output voltage at which the LED(s) must operate. Finally, don't forget to include a series resistor in series with the LED(s) to limit the current.


Calculator for LM317
as constant voltage source


555 - Astable Multivibrator

The oscillator circuit is undisputedly the most common application with the 555. Countless circuits can be devised and implemented with it. From straightforward beepers, flashing lights and windshield wiper machines to inventive circuits with sensors, meters, transmitters and receivers, musical, medical and scientific equipment and projects. Many novice electronics hobbyists acquire around 555 basic knowledge of electronics with simple circuits.

Period times
A period is the time for a full on/off cycle to repeat itself and the duty cycle is the percentage of time the signal was high in a period of time. In a stable 555 circuit, the duty cycle can never be lower than 50%.

Wikipedia writes: The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, delay, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. Read more about 555 at Wikipedia.

555 astable multivibrator
NE555 connections
555 DIP 8

Astable Multivibrator Calculator

555 astable multivibrator
Capacitor C:
Resistor R1:
Resistor R2:

By selecting the appropriate values for R1, R2 and C, we can determine the frequency and duty cycle of the oscillation:

Period (T):
Duty Cycle:
Time High (T1):
Time Low (T0):

Reverse 555 Calculator

The calculator below provides possible resistor and capacitor values, based on a desired frequency and duty cycle.
Frequency (F): Hz
Duty Cycle: %

Possible values:

LED blinking light

The scheme below is popular with model railroaders, for making flashing lights at railway crossings, or other situations. But the circuit can just as easily be used as a signaling light in electronic circuits. Or simply in the car to simulate a burglar alarm. The scheme is equipped with two LEDs, which alternately turn on and off. If 1 LED is enough, you can safely leave one out.
NE555 connections
R1 , R2 = 1,5K
R3, R4 = 470
P1 = 100K
D1, D2 = LED
C1 = 1uF
C2 = 10nF
C3 = 100uF
IC1 = NE555
You can adjust the flashing speed with P1 and also with the value of C1. If you make C1 larger, you decrease the flashing frequency. If you make C1 smaller, you increase it. You can of course replace P1 and R2 together with a fixed resistor.

disclaimer | w3schools | GFDL | GoodFon.com | pixabay | lookandlearn.com | pexels |pinterest | pxhere.com | unsplash.com
We decline all responsibility with regard to errors in the information, in the translation, possible harmfulness of mentioned substances and possible harmful consequences of working with these substances or of following the translated recipes on this website. For more information you read the disclaimer.
copyright © 2023 -
mixandstir.com - all rights reserved